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Milestones in the Maccabi Movement in Europe
January 8th - establishment of the first "Israel Gymnastic Club" in Constantinople (Kushta), Turkey.

Foundation of the "Physical Culture Club - Shimshon" in Plovdiv (Phillipopple), Bulgaria.

Dr. Max Nordau's appeal for a renewal of a "Jewry of muscles" (Muskeljudentum) at the 2nd Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland.

Foundation of "Bar Kochba Berlin" and the "Juedische Turnverein, Bielitz-Biala" (Austria).

Foundation of 20 Jewish Gymnastic Clubs (Juedische Turnvereine): Bulgaria 7, Austria 2, Bohemia and Moravia 5, Galicia (Poland) 1 and Germany 5.

First Gymnastic Display of Jewish Gymnasts before delegates at the 3rd Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland. Foundation of the "Juedische Turnerschaft" (Organization of all Jewish Gymnasts), the predecessor of Maccabi World Union (founded in 1921).

Establishment of "Maccabi Bulgaria" as head organization of all Jewish Gymnastic Clubs there.

Foundation of Maccabi VAC - all Jewish Sports Club in Budapest, Hungary.

Foundation Makkabi Helsinki, Finland.

Mass participation of Maccabi Bulgaria at the " Gymnastic Day" (Turntag) in Constantinople.

Foundation of "Maccabi Thesaloniki" (Greece) and "Juedischer Turnverein Zurich" (Switzerland).

Foundation of "Hakoah Wien" (Vienna, Austria).

Foundation of "Maccabi Zagreb" (Yugoslavia).

First Mass Display of Jewish Gymnasts at the 10th Zionist Congress in Vienna, with a participation of 1450 gymnasts.

Reorganization of the Juedische Turnerschaft in the framework of Territorial Organizations: Germany, Austria-West, including Austria, Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia; Austria East, including Bukovina and Galicia, Bulgaria, Turkey and Maccabi Eretz Israel including Beirut in Lebanon.

Foundation of "Maccabi Czernowitz" (Bukovina).

Foundation of the "Juedischer Turnverein Basel" (Switzerland).

Maccabim, expelled by the Turkish authorities from Eretz Israel, volunteers for active service with the British Forces in the Middle East. Their "Mule Corps" unit participates in fighting at Gallipoli (Marmara Straits, Turkey).

Foundation of "Maccabi Warsaw".

German and Austro-Hungarian Military Occupation Authorities permit full and open Maccabi activities in Poland (formerly Russia).

Foundation of "Maccabi Moscow" and, until 1923, strong Maccabi activities in Russia with main centres in Moscow and Odessa.

Maccabim volunteer for active service with the British Forces under Field Marshal Allenby and serve in the Jewish Battalion of the "Kings Rifles".

Maccabi Clubs in Switzerland and in Czechoslovakia set up their own Maccabi Territorial Organizations, “Maccabi Switzerland” and “Maccabi Czechoslovakia”.

Foundation of "Maccabi Bukuresti" (Romania).

Foundation K.S.C. Maccabi Antwerpen.

Convention of the "Juedische Turnerschaft" at Carlsbad in Czechoslovakia decides to terminate its activities and to establish a new head organization under the name "Maccabi World Union."
Foundation of Maccabi Territorial Organizations in Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Jugoslavia and “SC Hakoah Zurich” (Switzerland).

Sensational victory of "Hakoah Wien" in London over West Ham United, 5:0. First visit of "Hakoah" to Eretz Israel.
Gold Medal for Elias Katz of "Maccabi Turku" (Finland) at the Olympic Games in Paris.

Foundation of "Hakoah Copenhagen" (Denmark).

Participation of Maccabi Eretz Israel at the European Maccabi Games in Vienna. Maccabi Tel Aviv soccer team visits Poland.
Foundation of the “Tennis Hakoah Basel” (Switzerland).

The 1st European Maccabi Games take place in Prague, Czechoslovakia.

2nd European Maccabi Games in Antwerp, Belgium. Maccabi motor-cyclists from Eretz Israel, headed by Shlomo Arazi go to Antwerp for propaganda drive for Maccabiah.
Creation of Maccabi Tzar in Germany and Czechoslovakia.

Second propaganda tour of Eretz Israel Maccabi moto-cyclists to London - through Sinai, Cairo, Alexandria Piraeus, Bulgaria Jugoslavia, Austria, Germany and France - for the Maccabiah in Amateur Sports Federation established in Israel and affiliated to the International Sports Federation.
Foundation of the “Juedischer Turnverein Bern" (Switzerland).

First sports stadium in Tel Aviv at the seashore opened at the "First Maccabiah" Pesach 1932.
1st Maccabiah in Tel Aviv. The opening ceremony was punctuated by Tel Aviv mayor, Meir Dizengoff’s entrance on a white stallion to the delight of the audience. In addition, the audience was treated to displays by gymnastics groups performing amazing feats and the 390 athletes from 18 countries who attended, fulfilling Yosef Yekutieli’s dream of an international Jewish sporting event.

Transfer of Maccabi World Union Headquarters from Germany to London. Foundation of Maccabi in Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Foundation of the Olympic Committee in Eretz Israel - and its official recognition as a member of the International Olympic Committee held in Athens the same year.
Maccabi Eretz Israel girl athletes participate for the first time in the International Athletic Meet for Women in London.

2nd Maccabiah in Tel Aviv. Lord Alfred Melchett served as Honorary President of Maccabi and sponsored the Games.

In defiance of the British government’s strict limitations on aliyah, many competitors took advantage of their being in the Holy Land and decided to stay. Such was the decision of the entire Bulgarian delegation, which unanimously decided to make aliyah and shipped their musical instruments back to Bulgaria instead of themselves.

2nd Maccabiah Winter Games in Banska Bystrica, Czechoslovakia. Athletes from 15 countries attended the Winter Games.
Maccabi delegation from Eretz Israel gusts of "Sokol" at the International Sokol Gathering in Prague. (Alouf Nishri, Wein Arnon) Baltic Maccabi Games.

Complete close down of Maccabi in Europe, except Great Britain, Sweden and Switzerland.

Switzerland acts as main agency for Maccabi aid activities.
Maccabi volunteer drive for enlisting with the British Army in the Middle East.

Maccabim in the Jewish Brigade help in the re-opening of Maccabi Clubs in Europe (Holland, Belgium and France) and initiate organized Maccabi sports activities in Displaced Persons Camps in the American, British and French Zones in Germany.

European Maccabi leaders gathered in London to assess the severe damage that the Second World War had done to European Jewry and as a result of these discussions decided to create the

European Maccabi Confederation.

First post war European Maccabi Conference in Basel, Switzerland. Preliminary talks on holding the Third Maccabiah Games in Athens.

Foundation of the "Tennis Hakoah Zurich" (Switzerland).

The European Maccabi Confederation (EMC) was established in Switzerland.

3rd Maccabiah; the first in the State of Israel.
First participation of Israel in the Olympic Games in Helsinki, Finland.

4th Maccabiah in Israel.
5th Maccabiah. Former Maccabi World Union chairman Aron Netanel’s vision of a permanent Olympic-like village was realized. Visiting athletes now had Kfar Maccabiah as their home in Israel.

Agnes Keleti (Hungary), who won five Olympic gold medals in gymnastics made aliya.

3rd European Maccabi Games. The Games were re-introduced in 1959 in Copenhagen, Denmark.

Olympic Congress in session at the Olympic Games in Rome confers status of "International Sports Federation of Olympic Standing" on Maccabi World Union - the Maccabiah Games being thereby recognized as "Regional Games."

6th Maccabiah.

The 6th Maccabiah welcomed 1000 athletes from 26 different countries. The International Olympic Committee in the same year welcomed Maccabi World Union with official Olympic status.

4th European Maccabi Games in Lyon, France.

7th Maccabiah. Deborah Turner, a new immigrant from England and short distance running medal winner in the previous Maccabiah carried the torch into the stadium.

"Brith Hakoah 1909," the veteran organization of Hakoah, Vienna members, dedicatde a monument commemorating Jewish sportsmen and women victims of the Holocaust in the Maccabiah Village.

8th Maccabiah. The 8th Maccabiah in 1969 was the first Maccabiah in the post “Six Day War” period.

9th Maccabiah.

European Maccabi Games in Copenhagen, upon the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of Hakoah, Copenhagen.

Foundation of the "Club Maccabi Genève" (Switzerland).

10th Maccabiah.

5th European Maccabi Games in Leicester, Great Britain.
EMC Congress in London, England

11th Maccabiah. 3,450 athletes from 30 countries competed in 1981.

19th Maccabi World Union Congress. Fred S. Worms (UK) elected President.

EMC Congress in Düsseldorf, Germany

6th European Maccabi Games in Antwerp, Belgium.

EMC Congress in Copenhagen, Denmark.

12th Maccabiah. The 12th Maccabiah was opened by formed Maccabiah champion and seven-time Olympic gold medal winner, Mark Spitz.

For the first time the Junior Maccabiah took place, paving the way for future champions.

EMC Congress in Helsinki, Finland.

7th European Maccabi Games in Copenhagen, Denmark. Yugoslavia and Hungary participate.

EMC Congress in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

13th Maccabiah. The 13th Maccabiah marked a new step for the world and for the Maccabiah as the iron curtain began fell and relationships with Eastern Europe were rekindled.

For the first time since World War II, the USSR, Hungary and Yugoslavia participated in the Games.

EMC Congress in Antwerp, Belgium.

8th European Maccabi Games in Marseille, France.

Foundation of the "BC Hakoah Zurich" (Switzerland).

EMC Congress in London, England.

14th Maccabiah. The 14th Maccabiah, like its predecessor, also welcomed some new delegations.

Also attending for the first time since World War II were many Eastern European countries. All in all, 5061 athletes from 48 countries came to Israel to compete in 32 different sports.

EMC Congress in Budapest, Hungary.

9th European Maccabi Games in Amsterdam, Nederland.

EMC Congress in Köln, Germany.

15th Maccabiah. The last Maccabiah of the 20th Century started out as a celebration of history.

EMC Congress in Antwerp, Belgium.

10th European Maccabi Games in Glasgow, Scotland.

EMC Congress in Stockholm, Sweden

16th Maccabiah. The 16th Maccabiah was one of the most difficult in the history of Maccabi Games. As a result of the Intifada, violence, terror and suicide bomb attacks overwhelmed the entire country.

EMC Congress in Istanbul, Turkey.

11th European Maccabi Games. For the third time, the EMC designated Antwerp to organize the European Maccabi Games. 1400 athletes from more than 30 countries competed in 13 sports disciplines.

EMC Congress in Rome, Italy.

17th Maccabiah. Over 5000 athletes, whereof 1500 juniors, from 46 countries attended the Games.

The disciplines: Badminton, Baseball, Basketball, Beach Volleyball, Bridge, Chess, Cricket, Fencing, Field Hockey, Football (Soccer), Futsal, Golf, Gymnastics, Half Marathon, Handball, Judo, Karate, Lawn Bowls, Netball, Rhythmic Gymnastics, Rowing, Rugby, Softball, Squash, Swimming, Table Tennis, Taekwondo, Tennis, Ten Pin Bowling, Track & Field, Triathlon, Volleyball, Water Polo, Wrestling.

EMC Congress in Helsinki, Finland.

12th European Maccabi Games in Rome, Italy. Over 1700 athletes competed in 15 sports disciplines.

Participant countries: Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Gibraltar, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Nederland, Poland, Romania, Russia, Scotland, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine and guest delegations from Israel, Australia, Brasil, Canada, Mexico and USA.

EMC Congress in Paris, France.

18th Maccabiah takes place in July in Israel.

EMC Congress to be held in Vienna, Austria.

13th European Maccabi Games will take place in Vienna, Austria.